Federal Register, Vol. They defend a small (typically <1 ha) breeding territory during this time, which is often clumped with nearby territories of other flycatchers in a semi-colonial fashion. 2013. Age of young at first flight about 12-14 days. The upper part of the bill is gray; the lower part is orangish. Either kind may be found in thickets of either willow or alder shrubs, but their ranges are largely separate: Alder Flycatchers spend the summer mostly in Canada and Alaska, while Willow Flycatchers nest mostly south of the Canadian border. Distribution and status of the southwestern willow flycatcher along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon - 1994. ), typically in vegetation stands of 4–7 m in height. She places the nest about 2–5 feet above the ground. The race that nests along streams in the southwest is now considered threatened or endangered. Legal Notices Privacy Policy Contact Us. 2002. Sogge, M.K. Photo: Howard Arndt/Audubon Photography Awards, Great Egret. Corman and C. Wise-Gervais, eds. Courtship behavior is not well known, probably involves male actively chasing female through the trees. Finch, Deborah M.; Stoleson, Scott H., eds. Nest site is in a deciduous shrub or tree, especially in willow, 4-15' above the ground. Environmental Conservation Online System. By 2002, it was estimated that only 900 to 1100 pairs existed. One of the primary reasons for the decline of this species is the loss and degradation of dense, native riparian habitats. Type in your search and hit Enter on desktop or hit Go on mobile device. 2007. Males and females do not differ in plumage, but juveniles differ from adults by having buffy wing bars. Audubon protects birds and the places they need, today and tomorrow. They are essentially identical in looks, but their voices are different. The current critical habitat designation follows Recovery Plan goals, and identifies 1,975 stream kilometers in Arizona, New Mexico, and the southern portions of California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado. A decommissioned golf course glow-up benefits birds and local communities thanks to Lahontan Audubon Society and local partners. It weighs 11-12 grams. The birds frequently build nests in nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp. That estimate has increased to 1299 territories as of the most recent rangewide survey, completed in 2007. Our email newsletter shares the latest programs and initiatives. Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. Overwhelmed and Understaffed, Our National Wildlife Refuges Need Help. Males arrive on breeding grounds in late April to early May to establish territories, approximately 1–2 weeks before the females arrive. Learn more about these drawings. i-ix + 210 pp., Appendices A-O. They forage during the day, inside and above the canopy, along patch edges and openings in their territory, and above surface water, catching prey as diverse as flying ants to dragonflies. Source: U.S. Females pick a spot within low shrubs and bushes, often near the outer edge. Southwestern willow flycatchers feed primarily on insects, darting out in short flights to catch them in mid-air, or hovering to glean insects from foliage. The southwestern willow flycatcher is a federally endangered bird that breeds in dense riparian vegetation near surface water or saturated soils in the American Southwest. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too. Species Profile. Their breeding habitat currently ranges from southern California, through southern Nevada, southern Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, southwestern Colorado, and historically included western Texas and extreme northwestern Mexico. We protect birds and the places they need. Illustration © David Allen Sibley. Available at http://www. 2012. The birds frequently build nests in nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp. Water impoundment (dams), water diversion for agriculture, and groundwater pumping all have altered streamflow and thus riparian vegetation. The three other willow flycatcher subspecies occupy different breeding ranges in the U.S. adjacent to the southwestern subspecies, with E. t. adastus to the north, E. t. trailii to the east, and E. t. brewsteri to the northwest along the northern Pacific coast. Rep. RMRS-GTR-60. Fish and Wildlife Service revised flycatcher critical habitat in January 2013, following previous designations in 1997 and 2005. Pale buff to whitish, with brown spots concentrated toward larger end. Incubation is by female, 12-15 days. and T.J. Tibbitts. Nests with eggs have been observed as late as 30 August, with nestlings into mid-September. Bushes, willow thickets, brushy fields, upland copses. Cowbirds have increased in range and abundance in response to increased irrigated agriculture and livestock grazing. U.S. Willow Flycatcher nests, remarkably similar to those of the Lesser Goldfinch, differ notably in virtually always having loosely attached nest material hanging below the cup and the adults’ not letting the nestlings’ fecal matter decorate the nest’s edge. Southwestern willow flycatchers usually pair with a single mate during the breeding season, although polygyny (multiple female mates) has been documented at low rates. After pairing, the female builds an open cup nest from leaves, grass, fibers, feathers and animal hair, approximately 8 cm high and 8 cm wide (outside dimensions). Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Recovery Plan. Male defends nesting territory by singing (female may sing also). Sogge, M. K., Ahlers, Darrell, and Sferra, S. J. Some pairs will attempt to raise a second brood later in the season, particularly if their first nesting attempt fails. National Audubon Society U.S. The southwestern willow flycatcher is a small passerine, or perching bird, less than 15 cm (5.75 in) long from the tip of its bill to the tip of its tail. Usually forages from perches within tall shrubs or low trees; catches insects in mid-air, or takes them from foliage while hovering. Fish and Wildlife Service. Status, ecology, and conservation of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher. The replacement of native riparian plants, such as cottonwood and willow, by nonnative tamarisk has changed the character of nesting habitat for the flycatcher, although flycatchers do successfully nest in tamarisk. While their current distribution is similar to their historic range, southwestern willow flycatcher population numbers have declined precipitously in response to the loss of suitable riparian habitat throughout the region. Differences in diet, if any, between this species and Alder Flycatcher are not well known. The willow and alder flycatchers were considered the same species until the 1970s. Young: Both parents bring food for nestlings. Spread the word. SOUTHWESTERN WILLOW FLYCATCHER PROTOCOL REVISION 2000 The U.S. Nests are placed at an average of 4.6 m in height, but they can range from 1–12 m. In late May to early June, the female lays 3–4 buffy eggs with brown markings in a circle at the blunt end of the egg. Pages 302-303 in Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas, T.E. Prepared by Sonya Daw, Southern Colorado Plateau Network I&M Program, 2013. http:// sbsc.wr.usgs.gov/cprs/research/projects/swwf/reports.asp, http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/profile/ speciesProfile.action?spcode=B094, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01- 03/pdf/2012-30634.pdf. Speak out against the Yazoo Backwater Pumps which would drain 200,000 acres of crucial bird habitat. Visit your local Audubon center, join a chapter, or help save birds with your state program. While wet conditions are uniformly required, the structure and species of vegetation in which they nest vary by region and availability. Photo: Dick Dickinson/Audubon Photography Awards, Adult. Albuquerque, New Mexico. If you are fortunate enough to view this bird up close, you will notice a completely yellow lower mandible and the lack of a conspicuous eye-ring. Southwestern willow flycatchers require moist microclimatic and vegetative conditions, and breed only in dense riparian vegetation near surface water or saturated soil.