Conflict take place in two groups due to sectarianism and fundamentalism. There are three different outlook of social theorists on religion. Morris, A. What is the meaning of life? He was interested in analyzing the function of religion and he was also interested in the correlation of social change and religious change. These charismatic personalities often becomes the source of social change. Weber believed that, religion is the search of the information and knowledge of the things which is unknown to the mankind. The numbers of priests, deacons, and children involved will almost certainly never be known, but it is estimated that at least 4,400 priests and deacons in the United States, or about 4% of all such officials, have been accused of sexual abuse, although fewer than 2,000 had the allegations against them proven (Terry & Smith, 2006). A cross is merely two lines or bars in the shape of a “t,” but to tens of millions of Christians it is a symbol with deeply religious significance. The origins of the civil rights movement: Black communities organizing for change. Such dilemma create conflict between individuals within a society. News reports going back since the 1990s indicate a final problem that religion can cause, and that is sexual abuse, at least in the Catholic Church. As you undoubtedly have heard, an unknown number of children were sexually abused by Catholic priests and deacons in the United States, Canada, and many other nations going back at least to the 1960s. If religion was not important, it would not have been universal. The Functionalist Perspective on Religion. First, it gives people a common set of beliefs and thus is an important agent of socialization (see Chapter 2 “Socialization”). Tendency of rejecting the world or tendency of compromising with the world. Religion, Inequality, and Conflict. They think it is God’s will that they are poor, either because he is testing their faith in him or because they have violated his rules. For instance, the death of the close ones, failure, crises and success. Religion, Inequality, and Conflict. There are many functions of religion within a society. However, Weber sees religion as both source of instability and progress (social change). Moberg, D. O. Religion support the poor to believe that, they should endure the hardship, inequality and suppression and not to revolt against oppressor. The Protestants moral values became the values for the capitalism and which brought the progressive social change in society. Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World is adapted from a work produced and distributed under a Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-SA) in 2010 by a publisher who has requested that they and the original author not receive attribution. Weber argued that, due to protestant reforms capitalism came in to being. For many people they can be transformative experiences, while for others they are not transformative but are deeply moving nonetheless. Charismatic leader are those who possess extraordinary personality traits. The elite, with the help of religion; keep poor focused on the life after death and the perks which will be received by them after death. New York, NY: Routledge. Religion reinforces and promotes social inequality and social conflict. Karl Marx view about the religion totally differ from Emile Durkheim. Second, religion reinforces social unity and stability. Religious beliefs motivated Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights activists to risk their lives to desegregate the South. Chapter 8: Sexual Orientation and Inequality, 8.2 Public Attitudes about Sexual Orientation, 8.3 Inequality Based on Sexual Orientation, 8.4 Improving the Lives of the LGBT Community, 9.3 Life Expectancy and the Graying of Society, 9.4 Biological and Psychological Aspects of Aging, 9.6 Reducing Ageism and Helping Older Americans, 1. These include (a) giving meaning and purpose to life, (b) reinforcing social unity and stability, (c) serving as an agent of social control of behavior, (d) promoting physical and psychological well-being, and (e) motivating people to work for positive social change. Beliefs ( on supernatural power) His analysis of religion is mentioned in his theory of “elementary forms of religion”. Marx repeatedly stressed that workers needed to rise up and overthrow the bourgeoisie. (2009). Women and religion. Beliefs ( on supernatural power) 3. Sojourners, 12–13. by kdkasi | Jun 10, 2019 | Theoretical Perspectives on Religion. Summarize the major functions of religion. That was certainly true, as we have seen, in prehistoric times, but even in today’s highly scientific age, much of life and death remains a mystery, and religious faith and belief help many people make sense of the things science cannot tell us. What is death? A third function of religion is related to the one just discussed. (2009). Second, the communal practice of religion, as in houses of worship, brings people together physically, facilitates their communication and other social interaction, and thus strengthens their social bonds. (1998, September–October). New York, NY: Free Press. Emerson, M. O., Monahan, S. C., & Mirola, W. A. Emile Durkheim explained three elements of religion in this theory. “Structural functional perspective” implies that, religion is the source of stability and order in the society. Laziness and indulgence are considered to be vicious or sinful behavior. Neither biblical nor just: Southern Baptists and the subordination of women. Protestants believed that, working hard, striving to achieve the objective and rationalism are virtuous behavior. Thirdly, every religion in this world have rituals. Structural functional perspective of religion begins with the work of “Emile Durkheim”. For instance, Muslims celebrate “Eid ul fitar” and “Eid ul “Aza”, Cristians” celebrate Christmas and Easter and Hindus celebrate “Holi and Dewali”. Prophet (P B U H) and Christ are the examples of charismatic personalities. Religion strengthens social stability in at least two ways. New York, NY: Routledge. A fourth function of religion is greater psychological and physical well-being. Religious rituals and ceremonies also illustrate the symbolic interactionist approach. Rituals According to Emile Durkheim, religions have divided human experiences in sacred and profane; sacred … Due to religion people get better understanding of the world. Theoretical Perspectives on Religion. Klassen, P. Religion is the source for the development of traditions, norms and values. For these reasons, said Marx, religion leads the poor to accept their fate and helps maintain the existing system of social inequality. This adapted chapter is produced by Northeast Wisconsin Technical College. Spirituality and aging: Research and implications. “Conflict perspective” view religion as the source of suppression for poor people. 10.2 Religion in Historical and Cross-Cultural Perspective, 10.3 Sociological Perspectives on Religion, 10.6 Trends in Religious Belief and Activity. These views offer different lenses through which to s tudy and understand society: functionalism, symbolic interactionism, conflict theory and feminist theory. Of the several functions of religion that were discussed, which function do you think is the most important? Karl Marx: Selected writings in sociology and social philosophy (T. B. Bottomore, Trans.). What is the purpose of life? 2. This work is made available under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. Explain your choice. Gundy-Volf, J. It teaches the people to differentiate between moral and immoral behavior. A crescent moon and a star are just two shapes in the sky, but together they constitute the international symbol of Islam. Symbolic interactionists study the ways in which people practice their faith and interact in houses of worship and other religious settings, and they study how and why religious faith and practice have positive consequences for individual psychological and physical well-being. Gundy-Volf, J. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Scope, Subject Matter And Concerns of Sociology, Emile Durkheim Collective Consciousness Theory, Difference Between Acculturation and Enculturation, Difference Between Acculturation and Assimilation, Theoretical Perspectives on Socialization, Personality Development-Psychosexual Stages, Structural-Functional Perspective on Deviance, Youth and Crime (Historical Overview of British Juvenile Justice System), Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification, Social Stratification or Inequality in Pakistan and Armed Conflict, Theoretical Perspectives on Islam/ Islam and terrorism, Economic Systems: Capitalism and Socialism, Two Treatises of Government by John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau–The Social Contract, Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination. Religion create contradiction between two complementary tendencies. This work is made available under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. Karl Marx: Selected writings in sociology and social philosophy (T. B. Bottomore, Trans.). People have knowledge and are familiar with such events.