(1980) for a survey of these sociologies and a list of references to them; also, see Adler et al. Symbolic interactionism focuses on looking at the actions and interactions among the individuals rather than at the group level. Of specific importance are acceptance and support by others implying attributions of personal worth, thereby influencing the development of a person's general self-esteem (Pekrun 1990). A second source of self-related information are indirect, implicit attributions which are conveyed by others' emotional and instrumental behavior towards the developing person. An important strand of the reception of his work can be found in Germany. Theory and research had become separate pursuits. Sociological Paradigm #3: Symbolic Interactionist Theory. Community Development: Theories and Application Friday, October 9, ... "Symbolic Interactionism." Glaser and Strauss's arguments found receptive audiences. In addition to the inner emotions, any message that people communicate to others comes accompanied by a host of supporting clues and behaviors that aim to direct others to understand the person in the intended way (Manning, 1992). Co-experience is offered as such a sensitizing concept. These meanings are created in interaction with other people. After Mead's death, the school of ‘symbolic interactionism’ played a decisive role in assuring his influence in sociology. Apply: Community development can use symbolic interactionism to help bring people together to create a common understanding and shared goals. In the history of philosophy, Mead's main service is to have developed a pragmatist analysis of social interaction and individual self-reflection. If a community feels strongly about a symbol it would be beneficial to understand why this simple has signifigant value. Simmel also introduced into sociology the essay as an academic form of analysis, whilst his digressions within Sociology should be mentioned as well, for they have become generally recognized as classical texts; see, for example, his digressions on ‘The Letter’ (Brief), ‘Faithfulness’ (Treue), ‘Gratefulness’ (Dankbarkeit), and ‘The Stranger’ (Fremde). Individuals construct their own social realities and perspectives of their world using responses from the environment and different sociocultural relationships with which they interact. Symbolic Interaction Theory Symbolic Interaction Theory: Human life is lived in the symbolic domain. Margaret Zeegers, Deirdre Barron, in Milestone Moments in Getting your PhD in Qualitative Research, 2015. In the dominant postwar theory of Talcott Parsons it remained marginal; Mead's ideas were mentioned, alongside the works of Durkheim, Freud, and Cooley, as important for the understanding of the internalization of norms. Additionally, many symbolic interactionism examples seen throughout society can be subjective, based on your experiences with that particular symbol. Grounded theory derives from the intellectual traditions of each of its founders. Grounded theory methods themselves echo pragmatist and symbolic interactionist assumptions of social life as emergent and open-ended, and answer Herbert Blumer's (1969) call to study social action in natural settings. Reynolds 1993). Blumer's symbolic interactionism makes use of sensitizing concepts, which act as a scaffold for constructing understanding but, like a scaffold, are not a part of the final structure and are taken down before construction is complete. They were concerned that previous research has not investigated adequately how family, cultural, and social resources are converted into educational advantages. Strauss brought Chicago School pragmatism, symbolic interactionism, and field research to grounded theory (see also Symbolic Interaction: Methodology; Field Observational Research in Anthropology and Sociology). The results of TST would be used, by Kuhn, to outline generic laws that would apply to human beings in different situations. As examples, it will be sufficient to name, Milestone Moments in Getting your PhD in Qualitative Research. Self-concepts can develop according to direct attributions of traits and personal worth by other persons on condition that such attributions are consistent with other sources of information and interpreted accordingly. 2003. Mead's grasp of the unity of individuation and socialization defines his place in the history of sociology.