Buyers have income ceilings in applying for a new HDB flat. Households can apply for new flats from the HDB or buy public housing from the resale market. Lower‐income enrollees receive subsidies of between 25–50 per cent of the premium. These social policies arose largely in the Singapore context of political survival after 1965. This research contributes to the literature by interpreting the welfare regime in Singapore from a broad and dynamic political and economic context. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Given that some excellent studies on social policies in Singapore exist (e.g. These three programmes often draw fire from the three main contentions against the welfare state. From a recent survey, it was found that over 80 per cent resided in public housing, and 90 per cent of public housing residents owned their houses in 2015 (Department of Statistics and Ministry of Trade & Industry 2016), compared to approximately 29.4 per cent in the 1970s (Chia 2015a). The government sought to build itself up as an institution, and people were left to fend largely for themselves for old age, health and unemployment support, but through government bodies set up for individuals to latch themselves onto. SkillsFuture, initiated in 2015, is another scheme for all Singaporeans to upgrade their skills, whether or not they have a job. <> Therefore, Singapores social safety net has been anchored on social development to enable citizens to help themselves. The additional Retirement account is for people aged 55 and over; retirees can top up their account by cash or CPF savings (CPF Board 2016b). In 2015, Singapore ranked first among 72 countries in the PISA test (OECD 2016). People can enroll for MediShield if they are not older than 92 years old. With higher income inequality, low‐ and middle‐income groups are vulnerable to adverse shocks. We will not be able to tell you the result of our enquiries from this report. This work was influenced by the contributions of Amartya Sen on social development, as well as by the recent call for action in the report Mismeasuring Our Lives by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. Similar to other East Asian economies (e.g. Health financing is another concern. After the 1980s, higher education in technology and engineering was highlighted by education policies. In 2006, the opposition share of the vote was 35 per cent. In 1980, among all employees aged 15 and over, 20 per cent of male employees and 13.9 per cent of female employees were professional, managerial and technical workers. The income gap is also widening. The government has designed and implemented social policies. In 2015, Singapore's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita amounted to approximately US$52,000 compared with US$32,400 in Japan and US$27,200 in Korea. Given the concern for political survival, the economic rationale plays a pivotal role in social policy‐making in Singapore. about 6 per cent and 10 per cent in Japan and Korea, respectively, in recent years; World Bank 2016). 1 0 obj Approximately 80 per cent of the primary care is provided by the private sector, whereas publicly owned clinics provide about 20 per cent (Ministry of Health 2016a). In that year, the British transferred Singapore to a new nation called Malaysia, and in its two years in Malaysia, Singapore was defended by the Malaysian armed forces, which, in turn, enjoyed British military assistance through the large British base which continued to be in Singapore. Furthermore, the demand for long‐term care has been addressed. It is within this context, first, of political independence and self‐defence and, second, of fully backed currency issue, that the context of social policies in Singapore can be best explained. Under the the PAP government from 1959 onwards, the CPF's role has expanded to covering expenditures on housing, health and education. The government has provided subsidy for low‐ and middle‐income enrollees, as well as the ‘pioneer’ generation (i.e. The unemployment rate is still remarkably low (approximately 2 per cent in recent years); meanwhile, workers need to adapt to the changing economic structure, given that job opportunities in industries are decreasing significantly, and income in equality between skilled and unskilled labour is increasing. The overall balance of the CPF amounted to S$300 billion in 2015, which was about 75 per cent of GDP in that year (CPF Board 2016a). The public housing policy is helpful in providing shelter for workers, thereby raising productivity. Furthermore, this article considers the policy responses in Singapore to the change of the economic and social conditions in evolving welfare states by reviewing recent developments of the country's social policies. However, many of these conditions now are changing. The share of manufacturing sector in total employment has been decreasing from over 25 per cent in 2001 to about 16 per cent in 2015 (figure 5). Singaporeans born before 31 December 1949) (Ministry of Health 2016d). In the late 1960s, the manufacturing sector accounted for 7.2 per cent of GDP; however, in the 1980s, the manufacturing sector accounted for 23.9 per cent of GDP (Huff 1994). The amount of subsidies varies with the income level of patients. Tertiary‐level education is now increasingly becoming important in the growth of the economy. Public housing is a significant social and economic policy for two reasons. Stories about low-income or low-wage Singaporeans who struggle to make ends meet or receive inadequate financial assistance follow familiar patterns. In comparison with MediShield, the newly initiated MediShield Life provides a more generous coverage and a lower co‐payment (table 2). Most influential studies, including Pierson (1994, 1996), propose that welfare states are resilient not only due to the direct costs to change, but also to the institutional costs from the emergence of strong interest groups under the welfare state, including benefit recipients. In this context, social policies (e.g. A majority of foreign‐owned firms accounted for over 75 per cent of the total outputs and 72 per cent of the value added in the manufacturing sector in 1990 (Huff 1994). The share of the population aged 65 and over has rapidly increased from 7.3 per cent in 2000 to 11.7 per cent in 2015 (figure 6). In 2008, the city-state introduced the CPF Lifelong Income For the Elderly (LIFE) scheme as its first-ever national annuities scheme that has a lifelong monthly payout[vii]. Discourse of future-orientedness as neoliberal ideal: metaphor scenarios as a means of representing neoliberal logics.