There are three distinct levels of prevention. Protective Factor – Characteristic that decreases the likelihood of a person becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence or provides a buffer against risk. Data can demonstrate how frequently violence occurs, where it is occurs, trends, and who the victims and perpetrators are. 1. Grasping the magnitude of the problem involves analyzing data such as the number of violence-related behaviors, injuries, and deaths. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Washington, D.C. The principles of public health provide a useful framework for both continuing to investigate and understand the causes and consequences of violence and for preventing violence from occurring through primary prevention programmes, policy interventions and advocacy. When identifying a theory or model to guide health promotion or disease prevention programs, it is important to consider a range of factors, such as the specific health problem being addressed, the population(s) being served, and the contexts within … The public health approach also emphasizes input from diverse sectors including health, education, social services, justice, policy and the private sector.1 Collective action on the part of these stakeholders can help in addressing problems like violence. To establish why violence occurs using research to determine the causes and correlates of violence, the factors that increase or decrease the risk for violence, and the factors that could be modified through interventions. The presence of a risk factor does not mean that a person will always experience violence. Download All. 1 Collective action on the part of these stakeholders can help in addressing problems like violence. They help identify where prevention efforts need to be focused. A unique aspect of the approach is that it strives to provide the maximum benefit for the largest number of people. The public health approach. Programmes for the primary prevention of violence based on the public health approach are designed to expose a broad segment of a population to prevention measures and to reduce and prevent violence at a population-level. Risk factors do not cause violence. This public health approach to violence prevention seeks to improve the health and safety of all individuals by addressing underlying risk factors that increase the likelihood that an individual will become a victim or a perpetrator of violence. Why are risk and protective factors useful? The public health approach is a four-step process that is rooted in the scientific method. Once prevention strategies are implemented, they are evaluated rigorously to determine their effectiveness. It can be applied to violence and other health problems that affect populations. It relies on knowledge from a broad range of disciplines including medicine, epidemiology, sociology, psychology, criminology, education, and economics.1 This broad knowledge base has allowed the field of public health to respond successfully to a range of health conditions across the globe. The public health approach also emphasizes input from diverse sectors including health, education, social services, justice, policy and the private sector. Findings from the research literature and  data  from needs assessments, community surveys, stakeholder interviews, and focus groups are useful for designing prevention strategies. Please contact Sana Chehimi at 510-681-3534 to … However, as this example shows, prevention experts say that the further “upstream” one is from a negative health outcome, the likelier it is that any intervention will be effective. Saving Lives, Protecting People, Step 2: Identify Risk and Protective Factors, Step 3: Develop and Test Prevention Strategies, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Legal, Technical, and Financial Considerations, External Communications and Media Relations, Preventing Teen Dating and Youth Violence, United States Health and Justice Measures of Sexual Victimization, National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs), Striving to Reduce Youth Violence Everywhere (STRYVE), The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS), Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking Among Men, Sexual Violence and Intimate Partner Violence Among People with Disabilities, Understanding Pregnancy Resulting from Rape in the United States, National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), Violence Education Tools Online (VETOViolence), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.