It has since been retroactively applied to English monarchs from Henry II onward. Æthelred was forced to go into exile in mid-1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death in 1014. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. Henry IV seized power from Richard II (and also displaced the next in line to the throne, Edmund Mortimer (then aged 7), a descendant of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp). [94] A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV, also recognised the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible ever to inherit the throne. In view of the marriage, the church retroactively declared the Beauforts legitimate via a papal bull the same year. Following the death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready returned from exile and was again proclaimed king on 3 February 1014. Jane was executed for treason in 1554, aged 16. His son Edward the Elder conquered the eastern Danelaw, but Edward's son Æthelstan became the first king to rule the whole of England when he conquered Northumbria in 927, and he is regarded by some modern historians as the first true king of England. Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tudur (anglicised to Owen Tudor) and Catherine of Valois, the widow of the Lancastrian King Henry V. Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI. Eustace died the next year aged 23, during his father's lifetime, and so never became king in his own right.[62]. King of France 1422 – 1453 Good quiz but it could be even better if one had to name them in order - too easy otherwise. Before naming Matilda as heir, he had been in negotiations to name his nephew Stephen of Blois as his heir. (See family tree.). Henry II named his son, another Henry (1155–1183), as co-ruler with him but this was a Norman custom of designating an heir, and the younger Henry did not outlive his father and rule in his own right, so he is not counted as a monarch on lists of kings. However he suffered military defeat at the hands of the English fleet. The period which followed is known as The Anarchy, as parties supporting each side fought in open warfare both in Britain and on the continent for the better part of two decades. It was not until the late 9th century that one kingdom, Wessex, had become the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Elizabeth I's title became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Edward VI named Lady Jane Grey as his heir in his will, overruling the order of succession laid down by Parliament in the Third Succession Act. Queen Victoria died in 1901 and was succeeded by her son, Bertie, who became Edward VII. In 1604, he adopted the title King of Great Britain. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet. It is common among modern historians to refer to Henry II and his sons as the "Angevins" due to their vast continental Empire, and most of the Angevin kings before John spent more time in their continental possessions than in England. On 1 January 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged, which resulted in the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. See also list of English On 1 January 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged, which resulted in the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Richard III was crowned on 6 July 1483 with. Historian Simon Keynes states, for example, that "Offa was driven by a lust for power, not a vision of English unity; and what he left was a reputation, not a legacy. Between 1649 and 1653, there was no single English head of state, as England was ruled directly by the Rump Parliament with the English Council of State acting as executive power during a period known as the Commonwealth of England. The last four hundred years have seen many changes in the nature of the Monarchy in the United Kingdom. The Empress Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum ("Lady of the English"). While James and his descendants would continue to claim the throne, all Catholics (such as James and his son Charles) were barred from the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701, enacted by Anne, another of James's Protestant daughters. Its king, Alfred the Great, was overlord of western Mercia and used the title King of the Angles and Saxons, but he never ruled eastern and northern England, which was then known as the Danelaw, having earlier been conquered by the Danes from Scandinavia. Michael K. Jones and Malcolm G. Underwood, Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain, Alternative successions of the English crown, Family tree of English and British monarchs, List of monarchs of the British Isles by cause of death, List of rulers of the United Kingdom and predecessor states, "Family of Edgar +* and Aelfthryth +* of DEVON", "Ethelred II 'The Unready' (r. 978–1013 and 1014–1016)", "Edmund II 'Ironside' (r. Apr – Nov 1016)", "Edward III 'The Confessor' (r. 1042–1066)", "William I 'The Conqueror' (r. 1066–1087)", "William II (Known as William Rufus) (r. 1087–1100)", "Richard I Coeur de Lion ('The Lionheart') (r.1189–1199)", "England: Louis of France's Claim to the Throne of England: 1216–1217", "Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain (1554)", "History of St Giles' without Cripplegate", "Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1626–1712", "William III (r. 1689–1702) and Mary II (r. 1689–1694)", "Archontology – English Kings/Queens from 871 to 1707", "British Royal Family History – Kings and Queens", "English Monarchs – A complete history of the Kings and Queens of England",, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 17:28. This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Wessex, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which later made up modern England. Henry II was crowned on 19 December 1154 with his queen. "British monarchs" redirects here. By royal proclamation, James styled himself "King of Great Britain", but no such kingdom was actually created until 1707, when England and Scotland united to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain, with a single British parliament sitting at Westminster, during the reign of Queen Anne, marking the end of the Kingdom of England as a sovereign state. Mary II and William III were crowned on 11 April 1689. As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish. 6 … 4 Oliver and Richard Cromwell served as lords protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland during the republican Commonwealth. England, Scotland, and Ireland had shared a monarch for more than a hundred years, since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English and Irish thrones from his first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I. After the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, William the Conqueror made permanent the recent removal of the capital from Winchester to London. House of Lancaster. List Queen Anne had ruled the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, … Aethelwulf: 839-858. Henry VII was crowned on 30 October 1485. James VI was organized as her successor uniting England and Scotland as the United Kingdom. Those descended from English monarchs only through an illegitimate child would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth). When Henry died, Stephen invaded England, and in a coup d'etat had himself crowned instead of Matilda. During the ensuing Anarchy, Matilda controlled England for a few months in 1141—the first woman to do so—but was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) King of Great Britain. After the act of Union in 1707 the king or queen is more correctly called the monarch of Great Britain. In 1707, England and Scotland joined together. After the Acts of Union 1707, England as a sovereign state ceased to exist, replaced by the new Kingdom of Great Britain. For British monarchs since the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, see. [95] Nevertheless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's other descendants, the Royal House of Lancaster. Under the terms of the marriage treaty between Philip I of Naples (Philip II of Spain from 15 January 1556) and Queen Mary I, Philip was to enjoy Mary's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last.