The first one is the use of chemical tests to identify the functional groups. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. IR (infrared) spectroscopy is useful in organic chemistry because it enables you to identify different functional groups. Thus methanal and ethanal, respectively, are the systematic names for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Common nomenclature uses the prefix form—for a compound that contains no carbons other than those in the functional group, and acet—for those that have one carbon atom in addition [two in the case of acetone, (CH3)2C=O]. The systematic nomenclature of organic compounds indicates the positions of substituents using the lowest numbers possible to identify their locations in the carbon chain of the parent compound. In short: everything you need to pass A-Level Chemistry: This site uses cookies to improve your experience. Analysis of Organic Compounds is a practical approach towards accurate identification of formula of a compound, percentage composition of the elements present in it and the functional group (s). Tollen’s test to distinguish Aldehydes and Ketones. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Functional groups are structural units that determine the chemical reactivity of a molecule under a given set of conditions. Many organic compounds also have common names, which use the prefix form—for a compound that contains no carbons other than those in the functional group and acet—for those that have one additional carbon atom. Reactions of amides: Reaction of NaOH: Amides are decomposed by NaOH to evolve ammonia., Aliphatic acids are soluble in water where as aromatic acids are sparingly soluble in water. Some of the common functional groups present in organic compounds are: Hydrocarbons Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. These can easily be detected by the following reaction: Reaction of alcohol with metallic Na releases hydrogen gas observed as an effervescence. Halogen-substituted alkanes, alkenes, and arenes form a second major family of organic compounds, which include the alkyl halides and the aryl halides. Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Major Classes of Organic Compounds. Detection of functional groups of organic compounds - YouTube Nitrogen-containing organic compounds, the fifth family, include amines; nitriles, which have a C≡N bond; and nitro compounds, which contain the –NO2 group. Various books havedifferent approaches, but a systematic approach based on thescheme given below will give good results. The first one is the use of chemical tests to identify the functional groups. Tollen’s reagent is ammoniacal silver nitrate. The two reagents mixed in 1:1 ratio, reacts with aldehyde to produce a deep red ppt of Cu2O. characterizing unknown organic compounds in terms of their functional group and solubility behavior. For more information contact us at or check out our status page at It involves 3 important techniques. These compounds serve as the scaffolding to which the various functional groups are most often attached. To find out more, see our cookie policy. Compounds having different functional groups have different properties and belong to different families of compounds. It is of two types aliphatic and aromatic. Fehling’s Test to distinguish Aldehydes and Ketones. Carboxylic acids are organic compounds containing carboxyl functional group. Bromine water test – Addition of bromine water to an unsaturated compound makes the Orange-red color of bromine disappear. Carboxylic acid derivatives, the fourth family listed, are compounds in which the OH of the –CO2H functional group is replaced by either an alkoxy (–OR) group, producing an ester, or by an amido (–NRR′, where R and R′ can be H and/or alkyl groups), forming an amide. The second aspect is the use of high resolution mass spectrometry to identify the mass and bonding … Solubility and Functional Group Tests Each functional group has a particular set of chemical properties that allow it to be identified.