[9] In its highest form, pneuma constitutes the human soul (psychê), which is a fragment of the pneuma that is the soul of God (Zeus). [12], This article is about the philosophical concept. Thayer's Greek Lexicon. HELPS Word-studies 1720 emphysáō (from 1722 /en , "in" and physaō , "breathe, blow") – properly, breathe (blow) in. [3], Pneuma, "air in motion, breath, wind", is equivalent in the material monism of Anaximenes to aer (ἀήρ, "air") as the element from which all else originated. σενNAS: is as great as the width; and he measuredKJV: as the breadth: andINT: moreover the width also he measured, Revelation 21:16 N-NNSGRK: καὶ τὸ πλάτος καὶ τὸNAS: its length and width and heightKJV: and the breadth andINT: and the breadth and the. [8] For the Stoics, pneuma is the active, generative principle that organizes both the individual and the cosmos. [4] A quotation from Anaximenes observes that "just as our soul (psyche), being air (aer), holds us together, so do breath (pneuma) and air (aer) encompass the whole world." These movements derive from the soul of the parent and are embodied by the pneuma as a material substance in semen. At John 3:5, for example, pneuma is the Greek word translated into English as "spirit": "Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit (pneuma), he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." This usage is the earliest extant occurrence of the term in philosophy. Pneuma is necessary for life, and as in medical theory is involved with the "vital heat," but the Aristotelian pneuma is less precisely and thoroughly defined than that of the Stoics.[3]. Word Origin from platus Definition breadth NASB Translation breadth (1), broad plain (1), width (2). Like fire, this intelligent 'spirit' was imagined as a tenuous substance akin to a current of air or breath, but essentially possessing the quality of warmth; it was immanent in the universe as God, and in man as the soul and life-giving principle. individual personality.. 5590 (psyxē) corresponds exactly to the OT 5315 /phágō ("soul").The soul is the direct aftermath of God breathing (blowing) His gift of life into a person, making them an ensouled being. Strong's Greek 41144 Occurrencesπλάτος — 4 Occ. In Stoic philosophy, pneuma is the concept of the "breath of life," a mixture of the elements air (in motion) and fire (as warmth). In classical philosophy, it is distinguishable from psyche (ψυχή), which originally meant "breath of life", but is regularly translated as "spirit" or most often "soul". In the corpse arteries are empty; hence, in the light of these preconceptions they were declared to be vessels for conveying pneuma to the different parts of the body. Only the context however determines which sense(s) is meant. In this early usage, aer and pneuma are synonymous. As a force that structures matter, it exists even in inanimate objects. Pneuma (πνεῦμα) is an ancient Greek word for "breath", and in a religious context for "spirit" or "soul". The pneuma, inhaled from the outside air, rushes through the arteries till it reaches the various centres, especially the brain and the heart, and there causes thought and organic movement. [10] In his Introduction to the 1964 book Meditations, the Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth wrote: Cleanthes, wishing to give more explicit meaning to Zeno's 'creative fire', had been the first to hit upon the term pneuma, or 'spirit', to describe it. [5], In ancient Greek medicine, pneuma is the form of circulating air necessary for the systemic functioning of vital organs. It has various technical meanings for medical writers and philosophers of classical antiquity, particularly in regard to physiology, and is also used in Greek translations of ruach רוח in the Hebrew Bible, and in the Greek New Testament. [6], The disciples of Hippocrates explained the maintenance of vital heat to be the function of the breath within the organism. [7], The "connate pneuma" of Aristotle is the warm mobile "air" that in the sperm transmits the capacity for locomotion and certain sensations to the offspring. 5590 psyxḗ (from psyxō, "to breathe, blow" which is the root of the English words "psyche," "psychology") – soul (psyche); a person's distinct identity (unique personhood), i.e. Philo explains that, in his view, pneuma is for the light breathing of human men while the stronger pnoē was used for the divine Spirit. It is the material that sustains consciousness in a body. Both are from Greek verbs that mean "to breath" and "to blow.” Both pneuma and psyche also mean "breath" as in the "breath of life". ", Philo, a 1st-century Hellenistic Jewish philosopher commented on the use of Πνοή, rather than πνευμα, in the Septuagint translation of Genesis 2:7. 2315 theópneustos (from 2316 /theós, "God" and 4154 /pnéō, "breathe out") – properly, God-breathed, referring to the divine inspiration (inbreathing) of Scripture (used only in 2 Tim 3:16).. 2315 /theópneustos ("God-breathed"), likely a term coined by Paul, "expresses the sacred nature of the Scriptures (their divine origin) and their power to sanctify believers" (C. Spicq, 2, 193). Philip J. van der Eijk, "The Heart, the Brain, the Blood and the, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pneuma&oldid=987402405, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 20:18. Greek words for breath include αναπνοή, πνοή and ανάσα. [1][2] It has various technical meanings for medical writers and philosophers of classical antiquity, particularly in regard to physiology, and is also used in Greek translations of ruach רוח in the Hebrew Bible, and in the Greek New Testament. Around 300 BC, Praxagoras discovered the distinction between the arteries and the veins, although close studies of vascular anatomy had been ongoing since at least Diogenes of Apollonia. In some translations such as the King James version, however, pneuma is then translated as "wind" in verse eight, followed by the rendering "Spirit": "The wind (pneuma) bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit (pneuma). And another word, kardia, that is translated as "heart" but which is described as the source of thoughts. 4151 pneúma – properly, spirit (Spirit), wind, or breath.The most frequent meaning (translation) of 4151 (pneúma) in the NT is "spirit" ("Spirit"). [11], In Judaic and Christian usage, pneuma is a common word for "spirit" in the Septuagint and the Greek New Testament. Find more Greek words at wordhippo.com! For other uses, see, Silvia Benso, "The Breathing of the Air: Presocratic Echoes in Levinas," in. Pneuma (πνεῦμα) is an ancient Greek word for "breath", and in a religious context for "spirit" or "soul". 1720 ( emphysáō ) is only used in Jn 20:22 where Christ breathed into the apostles. Benso, "The Breathing of the Air," p. 14. In classical philosophy, it is distinguishable from psyche (ψυχή), which originally meant "breath of life", but is regularly translated as "spirit" or most often "soul". A generation afterwards, Erasistratus made this the basis of a new theory of diseases and their treatment. According to Diocles and Praxagoras, the psychic pneuma mediates between the heart, regarded as the seat of Mind in some physiological theories of ancient medicine, and the brain.