The degree to which people are organized into subunits according to their expertise is referred to as specialization—for example, human resources, finance, marketing, or manufacturing. His success at leading change in the United States gave his leaders the confidence that he could handle a challenging assignment: organize a new supply chain and distribution system for a company in Northern Europe. The informal organization is emergent, meaning that it is formed through the common conversations and relationships that often naturally occur as people interact with one another in their day-to-day relationships. There are two common examples of functional structures illustrated here. FSD’s are used for many tasks in the design process. An information flow is a signal provided to device or data that device acts on. Note that each functional description tells what the product does not how the product performs the function. A diagram of a generic Black Box Model is shown in Figure 1. Remember functional descriptions must be solution neutral because we do not want to begin focusing on how a product accomplishes a function until we completely understand what the product must do. Finally a material flow is any physical entity that the device transforms. People rely on structures to know what work they should do, how their work supports or relies on other employees, and how these work activities fulfill the purpose of the organization itself. In the nailer example, the input “Compressed Air” assumes that the nailer will be powered by compressed air. The boundary should agree with the scope of the project described in the design brief. Next, organizational change refers to the constant shifts that occur within an organizational system—for example, as people enter or leave the organization, market conditions shift, supply sources change, or adaptations are introduced in the processes for accomplishing work. The Function-Behaviour-Structure ontology – or short, the FBS ontology – is an applied ontology of design objects, i.e. Using Trends to Identify Product Opportunities, Generating Questions for Potential Users from Context Factors, Transforming Customer Quotes into Interpreted Needs, Customer Attributes to Engineering Characteristics, Setting Targets and Compiling Specifications, Caterpillar’s Over-the-Wall Design Process. Next the input flows are traced through the system as they are transformed by the functions. Tracing of the flow “Trip Signal” through the product. Can any of the functions be broken down into simpler functions? Examples of functional descriptions include: Cook Food – The function is cook and the flow is food. We will start with the nails. Mechanistic organizations are often characterized by a highly vertical organizational structure, or a “tall” structure, due to the presence of many levels of management. When Justin sets up his formal organization, he will need to design the administrative responsibilities and communication structures that should function within an organizational system. In this section, we’ll discuss the factors that any manager should consider when designing an organizational structure. In a mechanistic structure, it is assumed that efficiencies will occur in the system if the resources and decisions flow through in a centralized way. Each is headed by a functional manager and employees are grouped as per their role. For instance, top-level leaders are usually responsible for all of the work of their subordinates, mid-level leaders are responsible for a narrower set of responsibilities, and ground-level employees usually perform very specific tasks. Using the principles of bureaucracy outlined above, managers like Justin have experimented with many different structures as way to shape the formal organization and potentially to capture some of the advantages of the informal organization. Aside from the considerations outlined above, organizations will often set structures according to the functional needs of the organization. In these types of organizations, different tasks and activities are distributed to different functions and departments i.e. These relationships are constantly in flux, as people interact with new individuals, current relationships evolve, and the organization itself changes over time.