Again, these studies are broken down by league level: Studies such as these provide ammunition for those who defend organized football as an institution. Unlike consequentialism, which judges actions by their results, deontology doesn’t require weighing the costs and benefits of a situation. 5. [2] Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). [38] Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. One of the oldest amber deposits in the world, dating back 100 million years, is located in the Northern region of Myanmar. Consequentialists thus must specifyinitially the states of affairs that are intrinsicallyvaluable—oft… It paid more than $750 million to settle a civil lawsuit by former players. [3], A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is “a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury.”[4] A concussion is a form of TBI where the blow causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth, bouncing around in the skull and suffering various types of structural damage. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. One study found no statistically significant difference between the all-cause mortality among career NFL players and NFL replacement players who played just three games during the strike of 1987. Which approach do you find more persuasive, and why? [5] Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html. These studies are broken down by football league level: Given the results of the studies above, it is not surprising that there has been a strong outcry against football. Why or why not? [21] Adnan A. Hirad, A Common Neural Signature of Brain Injury in Concussion and Subconcussion, Science Advances 5(8), Aug. 2019. Explain. Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”. The positive rights theory posits that an action is right if it provides or tends to provide an individual with anything that he needs to exist. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, “Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,” Financial Post, Jan. 26, 2017. https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, “It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, American football is a rough and dangerous game. The advantage of this approach is that it allows the ethical decision maker to rely on relevant community standards, “without going through the complex process of trying to decide what is right in every situation using deontological or teleological approaches.” 4. [56] Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis Is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019 (quoting brain scientists Adnan Hirad). Amber also plays an invaluable role in research. A collection of one-of-a-kind videos that highlight the ethical aspects of various subjects. [70] Nicholas Dixon, Boxing, Paternalism, and Legal Moralism, Social Theory and Practice, 27(2): 323-344 (2001). [67] Adam M. Finkel & Kevin F. Bieniek, How Public Helath Science Evaluates Evidence, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 25(3): 564-589 (2019). See also Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020. [23] Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. Amber is a resin material that is formed from fossilized conifer tree sap during years of constant pressure and heat. [49], The NFL has taken other concrete steps to respond to the controversy. [58] Other people believe that media discussions have impeded needed change in minimizing sports violence. [52], On the other hand, while football helmets can prevent fractured skulls, they will likely never be able to prevent concussions. [54] Marc Siegel, Concussions and Football: New Helmets, New Tools, The Hill, Aug. 19, 2019. How might the self-serving bias impact team physicians’ and trainers’ judgments and actions? Dr. Omalu identified abnormal clumps of the protein tau in Webster’s brain, which he believed to be evidence of CTE. [45] Eamon T. Campolettano et al., Development of a Concussion Risk Function for a Youth Population Using Heal Linear and Rotational Acceleration, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(1): 92 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-019-02382-2. They have a duty to preserve the players’ health, but simultaneously feel pressure to get players back out on the field so the team can win. Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? 1. Don’t cheat.”. For many years this mining area has been protected by the Kachin Independence Army. 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