Global stratification refers to the hierarchical arrangement of individuals and groups in societies around the world. Although these qualities do not aid upward movement in caste or slave societies, they often do enable upward movement in class … Analyze the three dominant theories that attempt to explain global stratification. Systems of stratification are classified into open or closed systems depending on their allowance of such mobility. The cruel treatment of slaves was captured in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s classic but controversial book Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which ignited passions on both sides of the slavery debate. Sociologist Max Weber, whose work on organizations and bureaucracies was discussed in Chapter 6 “Groups and Organizations”, also had much to say about class systems of stratification. The caste system has imposed certain restrictions on the food habitats of the members these differ from caste to caste. Women workers are often used as a source of cheap labor in informal economies, or employment domains that are not regulated by governments and law enforcement. 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Macro-level analysis of stratification considers the role of international economic systems in shaping individuals’ resources and opportunities. Human trafficking, or the illegal trade of humans, is primarily used for forcing women and children into sex industries. Weber readily acknowledged the importance of this economic dimension but thought power and prestige also matter. A country that used to have a caste system is South Africa. In contrast with the class system, there are many societies that use the caste system, a closed system of social stratification in which the population is divided between hereditary groups. French Estates: In France before the French Revolution, society was divided into three estates: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. Class is an object of analysis for sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists and social historians. Both biological and sociocultural indicators were used to measure ethnicity. Many peoples’ beliefs about sex equality range along a continuum. Meso-level analysis of stratification focuses on how connections to organizations and institutions produce inequality. In a caste system, people are born into unequal groups based on their parents’ status and remain in these groups for the rest of their lives. The middle class is the most contested of the three categories, consisting of the broad group of people in contemporary society who fall socioeconomically between the lower class and upper class. When we look around the world and through history, we see different types of stratification systems. Ending slavery: How we free today’s slaves. Many of the ancient lands of the Middle East, including Babylonia, Egypt, and Persia, also owned slaves, as did ancient China and India. A person’s socioeconomic class has wide-ranging effects. Today’s slaves include (a) men first taken as prisoners of war in ethnic conflicts; (b) girls and women captured in wartime or kidnapped from their neighborhoods and used as prostitutes or sex slaves; (c) children sold by their parents to become child laborers; and (d) workers paying off debts who are abused and even tortured and too terrified to leave (Bales, 2007; Batstone, 2007). In some countries such as Russia, the 1857 census found that over 35 percent of the population could be categorized as a serf. In this system of stratification, a person is born into a social ranking but can move up or down from it much more easily than in caste systems or slave societies. (2007). Women also make, on average, $17,000 less than men do. It is also used as a general term to describe all types of slavery and may also include institutions not commonly classified as slavery, such as serfdom, conscription and penal labor. UNICEF estimates that identification and sometimes discrimination based on caste affects 250 million people worldwide. Slavery predates written records and has existed in many cultures. It increasingly divided the new nation after it won its independence from Britain and helped lead to the Civil War eight decades later. Average earnings of workers by education and sex - 2006. Second, dependency theory blames colonialism and neocolonialism (continuing economic dependence on former colonial countries) for global stratification. Stratification is generally analyzed from three different perspectives: micro-level, meso-level, and macro-level. Although the trans-Atlantic slave trade ended shortly after the American Revolution, slavery remained a central economic institution in the southern states of the United States, from where slavery expanded with the westward movement of population. Of the three systems of stratification discussed so far, class systems are by far the most open, meaning they have the most vertical mobility. A caste system is one in which social standing is based on ascribed status or birth. Colonial Mexican Caste System: After the Spanish colonized Mexico, one’s position in a caste system depended on how European or indigenous one seemed. Although, as noted earlier, all societies except perhaps for the simplest ones are stratified, some large nations have done their best to eliminate stratification by developing classless societies. This approach facilitates tracking people over time to measure relative class mobility. African American Slaves: Depiction of Slaves on a Virginian Plantation. In more recent times slavery has been outlawed in most societies, but continues through the practices of debt bondage, indentured servitude, serfdom, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, and forced marriage. This movement in either direction is primarily the result of a person’s own effort, knowledge, and skills or lack of them. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution about 11,000 years ago. ” Weber theorized that class position was determined by a person’s skills and education, rather than by their relationship to the means of production. Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work. Caste endogamy wasn’t limited to royalty; in Finland, for example, it was a crime—until modern times—to seduce and defraud into marriage by declaring a false social class. South Korea, Taiwan, Mexico, Brazil, India, Nigeria, and South Africa) are less developed than core nations but are more developed than peripheral nations. Sharply contrasted with […] Economic class, race, and gender shape the opportunities, the privileges, and the inequalities experienced by individuals and groups. It is the most widespread form of slavery today. A country that used to have a caste system is South Africa. Social democracy in the global periphery: Origins, challenges, prospects. Class systems are open, with achievement playing a … According to this theory, in the modern world, the rise of capitalism brought modern attitudes, modern technologies, and modern institutions which helped countries progress and have a higher standard of living. Social class refers to the grouping of individuals into positions on a stratified social hierarchy. Slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations, as slavery is a system of social stratification. In the next century, the English, the French, and other Europeans also began bringing African slaves into the Western Hemisphere, and by the 1800s they had captured and shipped to the New World some 10–12 million Africans, almost 2 million of whom died along the way (Thornton, 1998). The three-stratum model of stratification recognizes three categories: a wealthy and powerful upper class that owns and controls the means of production; a middle class of professional or salaried workers; and a lower class who rely on hourly wages for their livelihood.