The difference between the structure of the future and perfect tenses is that the future uses werden and its forms, the perfect tenses haben and its forms. Was kann ich für Sie tun? (I think something is wrong.) The professor claims to have discovered this fact. We are not allowed to go home. May I see the prescription? (You may come tomorrow. The recipe is very old. ), Seltsam, das Stimmt. © 2020 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Exactly, I have to be careful. Was soll man mit diesem Gerät tun können? This information is not official and is not suitable/allowed to present before the court or in other legal affairs. The verb "tun" has rare usage in German. In a sentence, there have to be the conjugated modal verb and the infinitive form of the main verb (except for very rare exception, see below). ), Lesson 2 Diphthongs and constant combinations, Lesson 12 Adjective endings in nominative case, Lesson 17 Prepositions with accusative case, Lesson 18 Questions with interrogative pronouns, Lesson 19 Asking questions without interrogative pronouns. Hat er das tun können? In addition mag can mean “may” suggesting possibility: Das mag wahr sein. tun (to do something) Example sentences in the present tense illustrate the use of each verb. In all cases, you can count on the dependent verb appearing at the end of the clause and in infinitive form, i.e., not conjugated to match a particular subject. (The child is five years old. This can be dangerous. ), to want to (shows a strong desire), Es war doch das Beste, daß wir gestern nicht ausgegangen sind. Wo ist Ihr Auto? More often than in English, in German you will encounter subordinate clauses that in fact function as the sentence subject. ), Ich brauche Ihre Hilfe. Das rezept ist sehr alt. Ja, das hat er gekonnt. The new process can be developed quickly. Rather than a past participle, you will see the infinitive form of the modal next to the dependent infinitive. No, I don’t want to. Where is your car? ), Wie bitte? What can I do for you? (That may be true.). können can also be translated as “to know” in the sense of skills, e.g. Die Fabrik funktionierte weiter, da der Ingenieur die Maschine am Sonntag hatte reparieren können. Note: The dependent verbs stand in final position. Are you coming with (us/me) to the movies? (Good day. Wir müssen gehen. Ob sie mit uns ins Kino gehen darf, bleibt unklar. So, as you could see, in order to construct the future tense, first conjugate “werden”, and then include the infinitive of the modal at the end of the sentence. [or:] It’s great that she is now going with us to the movies! Again the dependent infinitives go into final position. Exactly, I have to be careful. 1. Auf Wiedersehen. Please send accessibility and other feedback to alan.ng@wisc.edu. You must pay attention. (We should go.) Well, here are also some example for German modal verbs in the future tense. She allegedly wrote a third letter, too. 2. Stem-changing verbs are shown with their du (2nd person sing.) Die Studentin beklagte, daß sie diese ganze Woche, Die Fabrik funktionierte weiter, da der Ingenieur die Maschine am Sonntag. Note in these examples the difference in tense between the modal verb and its dependent verb. Please see chapter 8 to learn more about regular and irregular verbs. ), (The prescription is five years old. German language has following six modal verbs. Wie kann ich helfen? Master the rules for conjugating modal verbs and get tips on how and when to use them in German. Mein Sohn soll das Buch gelesen haben. Die Studentin hat diese ganze Woche fleißig lernen müssen. Please note that “Sie” (with the capital S) is used in second person polite form singular and plural pronouns (you in English), while “sie” (with the small s) is used in third person singular feminine pronoun (she in English) and in third person plural pronoun (they in English). ), Wie Sie wollen. This exercise must be done. ), to be supposed to, This chart is an alphabetical list of 50 commonly used German verbs. Der Student muß fleißig lernen. Meine Töchter mögen nicht laute Musik hören. Guten Tag. Well, I have to go now. The modal verbs in German are dürfen (be allowed to/may), können (be able to/can), mögen (to like/may), müssen (to have to/must), sollen (to ought to/should) and wollen (to want to).Modal verbs express ability, necessity, obligation, permission or possibility. Well, you can drive my car, but why do you want to buy the medicines? He doesn’t want to say whether he has to go to school tomorrow. ), Warum möchten Sie mein Auto fahren? If you are viewing the following table on small screen (mobile or tablet), please drag right or left to view the full table. Thus, using our sentences from the present tense, we have in the future tense: Der Student wird fleißig lernen müssen. Examples: Sowas kann gefährlich sein. Das steht hier (here it is. Auf Wiedersehen. ], recipe), gefährlich (dangerous) (adjective) (My car has no petrol. Der Ingenieur mußte die Maschine reparieren. Was he able to do that? Der Zug muß neulich abgefahren sein. In this dialog we have used “Hier steht das” to point the place where the name of medicine is written), das Jahr (year) Identify and translate modal verbs, in any tense, and in a variety of their usages. ), to have to (in the sense of obligation), Der Ingenieur hatte die Maschine am Sonntag reparieren können. The train must have departed recently. There are only six modal verbs in German. Do you see the date? (Something is not correct.) Das Kind ist fünf Jahre alt. Sentence structure with modal verbs When a sentence has a modal verb, the modal verb occupies the second place in the sentence and pushes its dependent verb in the final position in infinitive form. and er (3rd person sing.) Amerikaner unter 21 Jahren dürfen keine alkoholischen Getränke kaufen. English modal verbs include must, shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, and might. (She knows German). The (woman) student has had to study hard this entire week. Thus müssen plus a negative means “to not have to,” NOT “must not.” Thus it would be a common mistake by English speakers to misunderstand this example as “We must not go home.”. The six … In general, the dependent infinitive, such as aufräumen or gehen in the examples above, appears in final position in the clause. Wir können gehen. The following list demonstrates the irregular singular root of each modal verb and also provides typical translations of each verb: Amerikaner unter 21 Jahren dürfen keine alkoholischen Getränke kaufen. English modal verb "should" is nearest translation. The fact that she is now going with us to the movies is great! [or:] Whether she (will be/is) allowed to go to the movies with us is not clear. shows an intention It is possible to form a past participle of the modals beginning with ge– and ending in –t, i.e., gedurft, gekonnt, gemußt, gemocht, gesollt and gewollt. Sie müssen aufpassen. (You / they like the art. wollen has two other common usages. Subordinate Clause as Sentence Subject, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, to be allowed to (in the sense of permission).